A 38-year-old Japanese female was referred to Kurume University Hospital (Kurume, Japan) because of recurrent pneumonia. She had no particular medical history, had never undergone a blood transfusion and was taking no regular medication or treatment. She had a negative smoking history, did not own any pets and denied a history of dust exposure. Her family history was unremarkable. She had successfully completed three vaginal deliveries and had been well until the age of 35 years, which is when she experienced her first episode of pneumonia. The pneumonia was cured by the administration of β-lactam antibiotics. She then suffered three more episodes of pneumonia within 3 years. She denied any history of accidental aspiration, weight loss or haemoptysis, and did not have pyrexia, night sweats or sputum production between the episodes of pneumonia.
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