Lung transplantation (LT) is a therapeutic option in patients with end-stage lung diseases where other effective treatments are lacking . However, the procedure is not without risks and side-effects. One of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients is infection [1, 2]. Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of emerging infections, with the majority of mycobacterial infections due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis , although this is not the only pathogen in the mycobacteria group. Atypical mycobacteria are also being identified with increasing frequency as the cause of disease in transplant patients [2, 4–7].
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