Composition of surfactant. Representative composition of bovine surfactant from lung lavage fluid is shown. Components are expressed as a percentage of weight. DPPC: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; PA; phosphatidic acid; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PG: phosphatidylglycerol; PI: phosphatidylinositol. Reproduced from  with permission from the publisher.
Biological life cycle of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar type II cells. For further details, including recycling of surfactant, see the main text. ER: endoplasmic reticulum; G: Golgi bodies; LB: lamellar bodies; TM: tubular myelin; M: monolayer; I: type I alveolar epithelial cell; II: type II alveolar epithelial cell. Reproduced from  with permission from the publisher.
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Chest radiograph of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome with generalised “ground-glass” opacification of the lung fields bilaterally, air-bronchograms (small arrows) and loss of cardiac borders (open block arrows). Endotracheal and nasogastric tubes are in situ. Image courtesy of S. Barr, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK (personal collection).
Lung transplantation in surfactant protein deficiencies. Long-term outcomes of whole-lung transplantation in children with inherited surfactant protein deficiencies. SP: surfactant protein; ABCA: adenosine triphosphate binding cassette. Reproduced from  with permission from the publisher.