Table 2

Personality tests used in this review

TestWhat it measuresTest information
MMPI [11, 12]Personality characteristics on 10 clinical scales:
 Psychopathic deviate
 Social introversion
567 items
BIS/BAS [7]Appetite and aversive motivesBAS regulates appetitive motives, moves toward something desired, sensitive to reward and escape from punishment, and associated with positive affect and optimism
BIS regulates aversive motives, moves away from something aversive, sensitive to punishment and nonreward, and related to fear and anxiety
DS14 and DS16 [4, 6, 13]Type D personalityDS14 contains 14 items and a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (false) to 4 (true) is used to measure the subjects’ personalities
DS16 contains 8 items with negative affectivity and 8 items about social inhibition answered with a 5-point Likert rating scale.
The Big Five [7]Five main domains of personality (OCEAN)50 questions to rate on how true they are about the person on a 5-point Likert-scale (1, disagree; 3, neutral; 5, agree)
NEO-FFI [13]Five main domains of personality (OCEAN)60 questions assessing the essentials of personality
Mini-IPIP [7]Five main domains of personality (OCEAN)20 questions containing 4 items for each of the Big Five traits indicating the degree the statement applies to them on a 5-point scale
DOCCO [7]Stress, personality and lifestyle200 questions
CBA [14]State and trait anxiety, personality characteristics, psychophysiological disorders, fears and phobias, and depressive behavioursIncludes an anamnestic schedule providing information on habits, personal history, sleep, eating behaviour, work, etc.
WAYS [7]Different domains or aspects of personality, including basic descriptive traits, motivation and coping skills66 items to measure thoughts and actions used in stressful situations
Measures 8 coping factors:
 confrontive coping
 seeking social support
 accepting responsibility
 escape avoidance
 planful problem solving
 positive reappraisal
SCL-90-R [16]Psychiatric symptomsMultidimensional, self-report symptom inventory consisting of 90 items divided into 9 symptom dimensions:
 interpersonal sensitivity
 phobic anxiety
 paranoid ideation
EPQ [16]Personality traits measuring psychoticism, neuroticism, extraversion and lying4-item measures of psychoticism (social psychopath, solitary, troublesome, cruel and inhumane traits), neuroticism (anxious, worrying, moody and frequently depressed), extraversion (sociable, craves excitement, carefree and optimistic) and lying (social desirability)
  • NEO-FFI: NEO Five Factor Inventory; IPIP: International Personality Item Pool; CBA: Cognitive Behavioural Assessment; WAYS: Ways of Coping; SCL-90-R: Symptom Checklist-90 Revision; OCEAN: openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.