Table 1

Characteristic symptoms in patients with PCD, stratified by age#

NeonatesSitus abnormalities
 Normal situs (∼47%)
 Situs inversus totalis (∼47%)
 Situs ambiguus with or without cardiac defects (∼6–12%)
Neonatal respiratory distress
 At term with no risk factors
 Prolonged oxygen requirement
 Atelectasis on radiography
Persistent rhinorrhoea
Family history of PCD
ChildhoodWet cough
 Typically starts in infancy
 Persistent, year-round, doesn’t completely resolve with antibiotics
 Sometimes present in pre-school year
Chronic rhinitis typically starts in infancy
 Persistent, year round even when “well”
Otitis media with effusion (“glue ear”)
Conductive hearing loss
 Variability within and between patients, normal to requiring hearing aids
 Mucopurulent discharge complicates ventilation tube insertion (evidence poor)
Adolescents and adultsAs for children, plus
  Almost universal by adulthood
 Rhinosinusitis, variability within and between patients; symptoms might include
  Persistent nasal blockage and discharge
  Conductive hearing loss
  Nasal polyposis
 Male infertility (not 100% and incidence unclear)
 Female fertility issues (incidence unclear)

Not all symptoms may be present. Although individual symptoms are nonspecific, the combination of symptoms is a strong indicator. The early onset and persistence of airway symptoms is typical. #: as hardly any of the available publications has been stratified by age, this table is mainly based on the authors’ expert opinion and will change as good epidemiological data become available; it is based mainly on the pulmonologist’s perspective, as few papers come from ENT, fertility, cardiology or neonatal services and reflect their patient mix.