Table 1 Indications for medical thoracoscopy/pleuroscopy
  • Pleural effusions of indeterminate origin

  • Staging of lung cancer with pleural effusion and of diffuse malignant mesothelioma

  • Hormone receptor determination in breast cancer and culture in tuberculous pleurisy

  • Staging of pneumothorax

  • Diffuse lung diseases

  • Localised chest wall (and lung) lesions

  • Talc poudrage in malignant and chronic, recurrent non-malignant pleural effusions

  • Talc poudrage in pneumothorax

  • Parapneumonic effusions and empyema (opening of loculations)