Table 3 Absolute and relative contraindications to medical thoracoscopy/pleuroscopy
Lack of pleural space due to:
  1. Advanced empyema

  2. Pleural thickening of unknown aetiology

  3. Suspected mesothelioma where the visceral and parietal surfaces are fused

  4. Previous pleurodesis

Inability to tolerate lateral decubitus position
Unstable cardiovascular or haemodynamic status
Presence of severe, uncorrectable hypoxaemia despite oxygen therapy
Bleeding diathesis Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Refractory cough
Drug hypersensitivity
Reduced general health status with short suspected survival