Table 1 The parts of an abstract
Short, descriptive and interesting
Background (optional)
  • What is already known about the subject of your work?

  • What is not known about the subject?

In most cases, the background can be framed in just a few sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of information
State either a question or a hypothesis, or describe your specific research objective to clearly state the purpose of your work.
  • Describe the subject(s) you studied (molecules, cell lines, tissues, organs, animal or human population).

  • State the experimental approach or the study design, including your variables.

The methods section should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how. But, take care to mention only important details of materials and methods.
Include only results that answer your question, and only the most important data, in a logical order!
Data in an abstract can be presented as a table or graph. The only difference from a graphical presentation in a paper is that in abstracts no title is given for tables (usually) and no legends are included for graphs. Place the table or graph after the sentence that states the results, not instead of the results sentence.
  • What is the primary take home message/answer to your question?

  • Additional findings of importance (other than the primary outcome) are optional.

It is customary, but not essential, to express an opinion about the implications of your findings. Try to place your findings in perspective.