Table 1

Indications, contraindications and complications from endobronchial laser treatment

PalliationExtrinsic compressionFire
Debulking of endobronchial tumour and immediate palliation of endobronchial obstruction due to lung primary/metastasis (e.g. prostate, oesophagus, colon, etc.)Broncho-oesophageal fistulaFistula formationHypoxaemia
Endobronchial early stage lung cancer not amenable to conventional treatment (surgery, radiotherapy), including typical carcinoidsAirway wall necrosis
Endobronchial stenosis due to benign conditionsAir embolism
Previous intubation/tracheostomy, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sarcoidosis etc.Respiratory insufficiency secondary to aspiration of smoke produced by laser
Benign endobronchial lesions e.g. papilloma, fibroma, leiomyoma etcPneumothorax
Peri-/postoperative cardiac-cerebral incidents
Debris/blood clot formation