Table 1

Selected trials with hyper-fractionated regimes

Author, year [ref.]DesignPatients nChemotherapyRadiation dose/fractionationResultsOesophagitis 
grade 3–4
Turrisi, 1999 [26]Phase III417EP45 Gy/1.5 Gy twice dailyMedian OS 23 months, 5-year OS 26%0.0427%<0.001
45 Gy/1.8 Gy once dailyMedian OS 19 months, 5-year OS 16%11%
Schild, 2004 [22]Phase III261EP50.4 Gy/1.8 Gy once dailyMedian OS 20.6 months, 5-year OS 21%0.685%0.05
48 Gy/1.5 Gy twice daily (with a 2.5 week break inbetween)Median OS 20.6 months, 5-year OS 22%12%
Komaki, 2012 [27]Phase II71EP39.6 Gy/1.8 Gy once daily followed by 21.6 Gy/1.8 GyMedian OS 19 months, 2-year OS 36.6%N/A18%N/A
Gronberg, 2016 [28]Phase II157EP42 Gy/2.8 Gy once dailyMedian OS 18.8 months0.6131%0.80
45 Gy/1.5 Gy twice dailyMedian OS 25.1 months33%
Faivre-Finn, 2016 [29]Phase III547EP66 Gy/2 Gy once dailyMedian OS 25 months, 2-year OS 51%0.1519%No statistical difference
45 Gy/1.5 Gy twice dailyMedian OS 30 months, 2-year OS 56%19%

EP: etoposide and cisplatin-based chemotherapy; OS: overall survival. #: statistical significance p≤0.05.