Table 3

Consent signature requirements for pregnant women and children

For pregnant women
 Direct benefit to motherMother#
 Direct benefit to mother and fetusMother#
 Direct benefit to fetusMother and father#
For children
 Direct benefit to individual subjectsOne parent or guardian#
 No direct benefit to individual subjectsBoth parents#
 No direct benefit to the subject or societal (indirect) benefitBoth parents#
 Medical care related to pregnancyParental consent is not needed
 Medical care related to mental health treatment, or the diagnosis or treatment of infectious, contagious or communicable diseasesParental consent is not needed
 Self-sufficient minorsParental consent is not needed
  Aged ≥15 years
  Living alone
  Managing their own financial affairs
 Emancipated minorsParental consent is not needed
  Married or divorced
  On active duty in the US armed forces
  By a court
  Having the legal right to consent on their own behalf to medical, dental or mental health treatment

#: consent requirements are the same whether the risk is “no more than minimal” or “more than minimal”.