Table 2

Conditions to be met in research studies involving pregnant women and fetuses

In vivo studies have also been conducted on pregnant animals
• Clinical studies have been conducted on nonpregnant women
• Clinical findings assessing potential harms to pregnant women and fetuses are available
• The risk to the fetus is minimal and caused exclusively by the procedure/intervention
• The study will achieve crucial knowledge not obtainable by any other means
• The researchers will have no part in any decision influencing fetal viability or pregnancy
• No incentive will be provided to influence the course of pregnancy