**Manual validation of physical records** | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | Can be calculated |

**Questionnaires for healthcare practitioners or patients** | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | | |

**Validation of machine-learning algorithms** | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | Can be calculated |

**Comparison to an external database (complete overlap)** | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | Can be calculated | Can be calculated |

**Comparison of rates in a comparable population** | | | Estimate only | Estimate only |

**Internal validation using additional parameters** | Estimate only | Estimate only | | |

**Internal validation using free text in the database** | Estimate only | Estimate only | | |

**Sensitivity analyses using restrictive algorithms** | | | | |