Table 1

Possible contributors to inadequate diagnosis and treatment of PICS impairments in the outpatient setting

  • 1) Lack of routine post-hospital follow-up with ICU physicians [2, 21].

  • 2) ICU discharge planning and documentation often focuses on organ-specific issues and may not outline functional impairments that require follow-up [4].

  • 3) Significant responsibility is placed on primary care physicians and outpatient physicians who are often unaware of the intensity of the traumatic and life-threatening experiences that ICU patients may have faced [4].

  • 4) Generalised lack of awareness that PICS exists and is relatively common among ICU survivors [4].

  • 5) ICU discharge planning and documentation often focuses on organ-specific issues and may not outline functional impairments that require follow-up [4].

  • 6) PICS symptoms may be subtle and not readily apparent to the untrained clinician, and may have an onset many months following the acute hospitalisation.

  • 7) No validated, universally used screening tools currently exist for assessing post-ICU patients for PICS [4].

  • 8) No established rehabilitation pathway, as in stroke or traumatic brain injury.

    Rehabilitation clinicians may have less education on critical care issues that require intervention [4].

  • 9) Lack of established best practice guidelines on how to best treat and support patient survivors [4].

  • 10) Limited access to acute inpatient rehabilitation due to insurance constraints, which often require a minimum of 15 h of rehabilitation services per week and specific diagnosis codes [4].