Table  1

Causes of cystic lung disease

Associated with genetic mutationsLymphangioleiomyomatosis (tuberous sclerosis-associated and sporadic)
Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome and other folliculin deficiencies
Proteus syndrome, neurofibromatosis, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome
NeoplasticPulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, other histiocytoses (e.g. Erdheim–Chester disease)
Metastatic sarcoma, cavitating adenocarcinomas
Benign metastasising leiomyoma
Associated with lymphoproliferative disordersLymphocytic interstitial pneumonia
Follicular bronchiolitis
Light chain deposition disease
IgG4-related disease
Associated with infectionsPneumocystis jirovecii
Staphylococcal pneumonia
Respiratory papillomatosis
Parasitic and fungal diseases (e.g. coccidiocomycosis, paragonimiasis)
Occupational and environmentalHypersensitivity pneumonitis (e.g. farmer's lung, bird fanciers' lung)
Hard metal lung disease (tungsten carbide sensitisation)
Chronic beryllium disease (beryllium sensitisation)
Respiratory bronchiolitis associated interstitial lung disease (smoking/? vaping)
Hut lung (biomass fuels)
Associated with interstitial lung diseaseHypersensitivity pneumonitis
Honeycombing in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Honeycombing in asbestosis and other pneumoconioses
Conditions that may mimic cystic lung diseaseEmphysema
α1-antitrypsin deficiency
Cavities in rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis (Caplan's syndrome)