Table 2

Medications used in CTD

MedicationMechanism of action
Corticosteroids
 PrednisoloneAnti-inflammatory
 MethylprednisoloneAnti-inflammatory
DMARDs
 MethotrexateDihydrofolate reductase inhibitor
 HydroxchloroquineLysosomal membrane stablisation, reduces IL-1 and TNF synthesis
 Mycophenolate mofetilRestricts T- and B-cell proliferation, acts on purine synthesising enzyme
 AzathioprineMetabolised to 6-mercaptopurine
Biologic therapy
 EtanerceptSoluble TNF-α receptor
 AdalimumabMonoclonal antibody to TNF-α
 InfliximabMonoclonal antibody to TNF-α
 CanakinumabMonoclonal antibody to IL-1
 RituximabMonoclonal antibody to CD20
 AbataceptCTLA-4 fusion protein
Cytotoxic agent
 CyclophosphamideActs on all phases of cell cycle; acts on both T- and B-cells

DMARDs: disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs; CTLA-4: cytotoxic T-lymphocytes antigen 4; CD: cluster of differentiation.