TableĀ 1

Differential diagnosis for progressively worsening effort of breathing over time in the neonate

Pulmonary aetiologyExamples
Airway disordersLaryngomalacia
Tracheobronchomalacia
Tracheal stenosis
Bronchial stenosis
Tracheal haemangioma
Tracheal papilloma
Bronchogenic cyst
Pulmonary parenchymaChildhood interstitial lung disease
Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy
Alveolar disordersSurfactant dysfunction
Infectious disordersPneumonia/lower respiratory tract infection
Sepsis
Disorders of lung developmentPulmonary hypoplasia
Pulmonary aplasia
Pulmonary agenesis
Congenital lobar emphysema
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Musculoskeletal disordersRibcage abnormality
Skeletal dysplasias
Neurological disordersEpilepsy
Spinal muscular atrophy
Recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction
Phrenic nerve dysfunction
Central dysfunction of the breathing control centre
Other pulmonaryPneumothorax/air leak
NonpulmonaryCongenital heart defects