Table 3

List of potential treatable traits within the behaviour/risk-factor domain to consider in patients with chronic airway disease

TraitTrait identification marker/diagnostic criteriaPossible treatmentsEvidence level I–IV#
Suboptimal inhaler techniqueDirect observation and standardised assessment checklists, assessment via chipped inhalersEducation including demonstration and regular reassessmentI
Suboptimal adherencePrescription refill rates, self-reported use of <80% of prescribed medication, chipped inhalers, FENO suppression test, measurement of drug concentrationsSelf-management support, education, simplification of medication regime (i.e., reduce number of medications, frequency of doses and number of devices)I
SmokingSelf-reported current smoking, elevated exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary cotinineSmoking cessation counselling ± pharmacotherapyI
Side-effects of treatmentsPatient report, monitored withdrawalOptimisation of treatment, alternative therapy, change deviceI
Absence of a written action planPatient does not possess a written action plan, or reports not using the prescribed plan during exacerbationsIndividualised self-management education with a written action planI
Exercise intolerance<350 m on 6MWTPulmonary rehabilitationI
Decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis)T-score ≤−2.5Pharmacotherapy based on osteoporosis guidelines, vitamin D supplementation, resistance trainingI, II
SarcopeniaAppendicular skeletal muscle mass index:
Males <7.26 kg·m−2
Females <5.45 kg·m−2
Diet (high protein), resistance trainingI, II

#: NHMRC level of evidence currently available for the management/treatment of each trait; : evidence from the general population. Content has been reproduced with permission from the Centre of Excellence in Treatable Traits, originally developed as part of the Centre of Excellence in Treatable Traits (