Summary of definitions

MicrobiomeThe combined genomes of all the microorganisms inhabiting a particular environment
MicrobiotaCommunity of microorganisms in an environment
MetagenomicsThe study of the whole genome of a community of microorganisms, allowing assessment of the functional potential of the microorganisms
RNA metatranscriptomicsThe measurement of the total mRNA in a community, to allow representation of active gene expression at that time
ResistomeCollection of antibiotic resistance genes in a community
MetabolomicsAssessment of the metabolites of a given sample, allowing identification of metabolically active organisms
ProteomicsAssessment of proteins produced by the host and microbiota
Alpha diversityThe diversity of a sample, including the richness (number of species) or evenness (distribution of species)
Beta diversityThe measure of the similarity or dissimilarity of two communities