Table 2

Drug-induced pneumonitis clinical and radiographic features

AetiologyMany drugs, most commonly chemotherapy agents (bleomycin, busulfan, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, thalidomide), immunosuppressive agents (sirolimus), amiodarone, antibiotics (nitrofurantoin, amphotericin B), pembrolizumab
IncidenceOverall incidence unknown (varies depending on agent)
Sex ratioUnknown
Age predilectionVaries depending on agent (e.g. bleomycin-induced lung injury risk is increased in the elderly)
Median age for acute and chronic nitrofurantoin-induced pulmonary reactions was 59 and 68 years, respectively
Risk factorsVaries depending on agent (e.g. marked increased risk of bleomycin lung injury if cumulative dose exceeds 450 units)
TreatmentCessation of offending agent
Corticosteroid therapy is often used, although evidence is lacking
PrognosisVaries widely, from complete clinical recovery and resolution of imaging findings to respiratory failure and death
Findings on imagingCT findings vary among different aetiologies, includes multifocal GGOs with intralobular interstitial thickening, patchy GGO, centrilobular nodules