Clinical characteristics and parameters resulting in high clinical suspicion for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in patients with COPD

Symptoms compatible with OSA, such as snoring, witnessed apnoeas, unrefreshed sleep, daytime sleepiness and nocturia
Obesity as measured by:
 Body mass index (>30 kg·m−2 in males and >35 kg·m−2 in females)
 Neck circumference (>43 cm in males and >41 cm in females)
Deranged blood gases
 Persistent daytime hypoxaemia
Signs of pulmonary hypertension or right heart failure, such as peripheral oedema
Use of opioids and/or hypnotic medications
Comorbidities such as:
 Resistant hypertension
 Atrial fibrillation
 Heart failure
 Type 2 diabetes
 End-stage renal disease