TABLE 1

Pharmacokinetics of wakefulness-promoting agents

Absorption from GI tracttmax, ht1/2, hEliminationInteraction with OCP
Modafinil [53, 54]Rapid2–412Predominantly hepatic metabolismReduces efficacy
Armodafinil [55, 56]Rapid2–415Predominantly hepatic metabolismReduces efficacy
Solriamfetol [57]Rapid26Predominantly unchanged in urineNone
Pitolisant [58]Rapid312Predominantly in urineReduces efficacy
Methylphenidate [59]Rapid32–3Predominantly in urineNone
Sodium oxybate [60]Rapid<1<1Rapid hepatic metabolismNone

GI: gastrointestinal; tmax: time of maximum plasma concentration; t1/2: elimination half-life; OCP: oral contraceptive pill.